Wheat growers planning to use 2000 season bin-run seed should consider having a germination test conducted. The scab fungus will be present even in sound looking seed and can lower percent germination and subsequent emergence. Growers with seed germinating less than 80% should consider: 1) not planting bin-run seed and buying high germination certified seed, 2) treat seed with a fungicde; the product Raxil/thiram formulated by Gustafson (www.gustafson.com) has proven effective in Wisconsin, but other products are available. Why be concerned about winter wheat stands? 1) good vigor and seedling health going into winter dormancy lowers the risk of winter kill, 2) dense canopy structures are less attractive to aphids that transmit barley yellow dwarf. Barley yellow dwarf is likely responsible for many of the low winter wheat yield obtained in 2000. Delayed planting will lower the risk of BYD, but delayed planting means planting into cooler soils. Thus, seed should have high vigor or be treated with a fungicide to lower the risk of vigor reducing pathogens such as the scab fungus.